Paradigm, No. 26 (October, 1998)

ILLUSTRATIONS
of
THE INTERROGATIVE SYSTEM
of
EDUCATION

BY SIR RICHARD PHILLIPS

The inventor and promoter of the System of teaching by simple Interrogatories, has completed his original design, by extending it to all branches of liberal education. At such a period, he is inspired with those sanguine hopes which necessarily attend the completion of an extensive undertaking, upon which, as inventor, author, and publisher, he has been employed, either in the contemplation or execution, during the last five and twenty years.

Until the appearance of the first of this series of Elementary Books, there existed no really practical means of extending scholastic instruction, beyond the Grammars of Languages, the Elements of Arithmetic and Algebra, and some branches of mixed Mathematics.

The vulgar compilations of Dilworth, the technical treatises of Martin, and various works in Question and Answer, constituted, within the memory of thousands, the only Books for Schools. The first essay towards an improvement, was made in the publication of Dr. Mavor’s British Nepos, and his Natural History drawn up by that gentleman, on the suggestion of the publisher. The success of these led to the creation of other elementary Books, in the various branches of elegant and useful knowledge; most of which have been honoured by general introduction into the principal Schools of the British Empire, while many of them have been reprinted in America, or translated into foreign Languages.

Their unequivocal success gave rise, as usual, to feelings of envy, and to competitions of trade, which often brought discredit on the original plans, and tended sometimes to supersede them.

The career of the new System was thus obstructed, by all those artifices of self-interest and prejudice, which are opposed to every improvement. Time, patience, and perseverance, have at length, however, surmounted every obstacle, and no series of Books, or system of Instruction, was ever offered to the attention of Conductors of Schools, which, in the same period, obtained more general credit than the Books and the System under consideration.

Many persons do not feel with due force, the intimate connection which exists between the production of good elementary Books, and the extension of the objects of education. They do not consider, that to expect the conductor of a School to introduce a subject of instruction, without the aid of a good elementary treatise, is like the expectation of the King of Egypt, "that the Israelites should make bricks without straw". They are sensible that the Elements of Euclid are necessary to the promulgation of Geometry; yet they do not admit without reserve, the importance of the task of creating good elementary Books, on every other subject, with a view to the desirable enlargement of the sphere of education. In France, this was so sensibly felt, that on the publisher of this series submitting copies of his Books in Paris to some distinguished French Philanthropists, they exclaimed, "Ah, this is what is wanted-&endash;we have talked much of education, and have laboured much in vain, but it is now apparent that we have wanted those tools which you have introduced into England." Accordingly, a Society of Education has since been formed in France, and a Committee has been appointed to prepare Elementary Books, as the true basis of improvement in public Instruction.

The System itself consists of Miscellaneous Questions, Exercises, and Experiments, referring to different passages in the Text-books, sometimes simple or applicable to a single fact, and at other times complicated or applicable to facts and principles scattered throughout the Text-book. Each of the series of mingled questions generally extends to about five hundred in number; and the Pupil is required, as a private exercise, to furnish an answer to each question in his own phraseology. The questions are purposely mingled, and are not in the order of the Text, with a view to compel the young Student to turn over and examine every part of the Text-book; with which, it is presumed, he must and will become familiar, long before he has answered the whole of the five hundred questions.

A thorough acquaintance with the Text-book is, of course, simultaneously accompanied by a familiar acquaintance with the science treated of in its pages; while the constant exercise of writing the answers to the questions, necessarily improves the Pupil in the important arts and practice of Spelling, Grammar, Thinking and Composition. In some, the series of Questions are annexed to the Text-books; others are printed in little books; and the whole have also been printed in quarto Copy-books, with ruled spaces for the answers.

Of the importance of this extension of the objects of education, the inventor of this practical mode of instruction need say little. The worth of his labours will be candidly acknowledged by intelligent Teachers, and be felt by the next and subsequent generations; but he states his claims for the sake of securing himself against the injustice which he suffers from unprincipled imitators, who thrust their piracies on the public with the boisterous pretensions which accompany empiricism, and sometimes succeed in robbing him of the fair reward of those plans which have cost him much anxious thought, and great labour to mature.

Thus, after the inventor had exhibited specimens of his system in several works, he found editions of old ones supplied with similar appendages; and saw announced various new works, the boast of the authors of which, was the application of interrogatories to their systems, while the books themselves were often such close imitations in type, display of heads, binding, &c. as to occasion them to be easily mistaken for the originals. In spite, however, of, the Lion’s Skin, the Ass’s Ears were soon apparent to every one who examined the works of these impostors; for in compiling their interrogatories, they totally mistook the purpose of the inventor, printing them in the exact order of the text, so that the answers would be afforded by an unstudied reference; and the finding of them serve neither as any mental exercise to the student, nor as any test of his proficiency. Others, more wary, have better imitated the original system, but conceiving that the worth of their labours would be estimated by the quantity, rather than the quality, have extended the number of their questions to twelve or fifteen hundred, or as many as would employ several years in answering, thereby defeating their own purpose, in the system of practical education.

Besides these plagiarists, another tribe of imitators have seized on the words, Interrogative System, and hoping to avail themselves of an ambiguity in the term, have deluged the country with Books in Question and Answer, a mode of composition long obsolete, and deservedly exploded. A system of teaching by Questions without Answers, by Questions which force the pupil to think, while he is searching for and preparing the answer; and another which gives Answers to every Question, without involving any obligation to think, are, however, so essentially different, that the fraud attempted by the latter, must necessarily be rejected by every conscientious and intelligent Tutor.

The Editor has also had to contend with an affected fondness for Foreign discovery.&endash;A discovery made at home, is, in the estimation of many, of far less worth than the same discovery made abroad; hence the idle vaunting about the Swiss System of Pestalozzi, which, in truth, is merely the English Interrogative System, but applied to fewer objects of instruction, less complete in its plan, and less practicable in teaching, because it is unprovided with Text Books, and requires an incessant repetition of oral instruction.

The simplicity of his own system is, in the Editors’ opinion, no proof of its inadequacy, or inefficacy for its professed purposes, because it is by the simplest means that all the great ends of nature are effected. It serves the purpose of forcing the student to think upon, and to work at the subject of his study, and this intellectual labour is all that is wanted. The same purpose was heretofore effected by exercises on the Latin, Greek, and French Grammars, and by examples in systems of Arithmetic; and thence arose the preference which was given to those studies in schools, as means of exercising the mind, independently of the value of the particular attainments. All, therefore, which the present, Editor pretends to have effected, has been, to apply the same, principle of mental exercise to other subjects, which he conceives to be of as great, and, in some cases, even of greater utility. His first step was to analyze the principle itself; his next, to determine the best means, as applicable to new subjects, which he found to be the form of interrogatories; and finally, he applied those means to the several subjects. All this he has effected in the elementary treatise; and popular compilations, long before the public; and he has removed the only obstacle to their general adoption in all sorts of schools, by the publication of Keys or References to the Questions.

The same principle of requiring the Student to work at the subject of Study, has led the publisher to invent two sets of outline Maps, and of projections of Maps, the filling up of which, by the Pupil, renders him more perfect in the details of Geography within a few months, than he could become in as many years by the mere perusal of books.

As a further and very important auxiliary, with reference at once to Moral and Intellectual improvement, he has also invented two Register Books, for Schoolmasters and Governesses, by which they are enabled to record, from day to day, the conduct and improvement of every one of their Pupils, and exactly balance their good and bad conduct, at the end of every half year. The value and importance of these Registers, will be felt as soon as seen, and it is one of their valuable recommendations, that they must inevitably tend to supersede the necessity of corporal punishment.

The scope of practical education, which has been thus accommodated at once to the business of schools, and to the habits and mental powers of juvenile scholars, is, by the machinery of a well-adapted series of elementary Books, extended to the useful and elegant sciences of

UNIVERSAL GEOGRAPHY,

 In two works, by Goldsmith, and in his outline Maps, or Copy-books, and Atlases, aided by the Universal Traveller, and all the Voyages round the World.

 BRITISH GEOGRAPHY,

In Goldsmith’s British Empire.

ENGLISH HISTORY,

In Robinson’s Abridgement of Hume and Smollett, and in the Five Hundred Questions, printed as a Copy-book, and Adair’s Questions on Goldsmith.

 NATURAL HISTORY,

In Mavor’s Elements.

UNIVERSAL HISTORY,

In Robinson’s Grammar, and his volumes of Ancient and Modern History.

BIOGRAPHY,

In Goldsmith’s Biographical Class Book; in Mavor’s Nepos, and Plutarch; and in Watkins’s Scripture Biography, and Dictionary.

SACRED HISTORY,

In Barrow’s Scripture Narratives, Rundall’s Grammar, and Watkins’s

Scripture Biography.

CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY,

In Barrow’s Questions on the Old and New Testaments, and, School Sermons.

PRINCIPLES OF GRAMMAR,

In Blair’s English Grammar, and Adair’s Questions on Murray.

ENGLISH COMPOSITION,

In Irving’s Elements, and Blair’s Models of Letters, with Topics for exercise.

LATIN

In the Questions on the Eton Grammar, printed as a Copy-book,

and in Bossut’s Latin Word and Phrase Books.

FRENCH

In Bossut’s Word Book, Phrase Book, French Grammar and Syntax,

with Exercises, and in Noel and La Place’s Leçons Françaises.

ENGLISH POETRY

In Aikin’s lnfantine Volume, and Pratt and Mavor’s Classical Selections.

CLASSICS,

In Johnson’s Grammar of Classical Literature, with its copy-book.

TRADE AND THE ARTS,

In the Book of Trades, and its Copy-book Questions.

BOOK-KEEPING,

In Morrison’s System.

ARITHMETIC,

In the Works of Joyce.

MATHEMATICS

In Nicholson’s Popular Elements. and Mitchell’s Mathematical Dictionary.

PHYSICS AND PHILOSOPHY,

In Blair’s Grammar of Philosophy.

ASTRONOMY,

In Squire’s Grammar, and the Wonders of the Heavens.

GENERAL SCIENCE,

In Blair’s Universal Preceptor, Mitchell’s Universal Catechist, Blair’s

Class Book, Clarke’s Wonders of the World, Shaw’s Nature Displayed,

and Watkins’s Portable Cyclopaedia.

ENGLISH LAW AND CONSTITUTION,

In Gifford’s Abridgement of Blackstone.

 

The means of teaching which several subjects with facility and effect, are afforded by the several Elementary Text Books, and connected series of Questions and Exercises; while the Answers contained in the different Keys serve to relieve Tutors from the necessity of previous preparation.

The following is a list of the Sets of 500 Questions, printed in thick post Copy Books, with spaces for the answers, a form in which they cannot fail to be preferred wherever they are seen:

Questions on Robinson’s Abridgement of Hume and Smollett's Histories of England.

_____ on Johnson’s Grammar of Classical Literature.

_____ on Mitchell’s Universal Catechist.

_____ on Blair’s Universal Preceptor.

_____ on the Old Testament.

_____ on the New Testament.

_____ on Barrow’s Scripture Narratives.

_____ on Blair’s English Grammar.

_____ on Murray’s Grammar, and Irving’s Elements of Composition.

_____ on Goldsmith’s History of England.

_____ on Goldsmith’s Grammar of Geography.

_____ on Goldsmith’s British Empire.

_____ on Goldsmith’s Biographical Class Book.

_____ on Blair’s Grammar of Natural Philosophy.

_____ on Clarke’s Hundred Wonders of the World.

_____ on Squire’s Grammar of Astronomy.

_____ on Bossut’s Grammar and Exercises.

_____ on the Eton Latin Grammar.

_____ on Gifford’s Abridgement of Blackstone’s Commentaries.

_____ on the Book of English Trades.

_____ on Robinson’s Grammar of Universal History.

_____ on Robinson’s Modem History.

_____ on Robinson’s Ancient History.

In short, all these subjects, hitherto so complicated, so difficult of general attainment, and so remote from popular approach, may now be placed on the cards of all seminaries, and taught to various classes in all kinds of schools, as easily as the elements of Grammar or Arithmetic have heretofore been taught. Nothing more is requisite than to place the several Text Books in the hands of the Pupils; to direct them to commit to memory, or copy fairly, * one or two paragraphs, every evening; and in due time, or when they have become familiar with the contents of the Text Book, to reply to the questions, or perform the exercises, so that the answers, or results, may correspond with those in the Keys, which the Tutor is supposed to reserve for his own private reference.

____________________________________

* The choice should be governed by the facility with which the Pupil appears to be able to commit tasks to memory. The attempt on some children disgusts them with all their studies, and in such cases, copying should be prefered; while others commit tasks to memory with a degree of ease which is an inducement to encourage the faculty. The paths to learning should always be a smooth and pleasant as possible.

______________________________________

To secure the Pupil against the ill effects of indolence, or of diffidence in his own powers, and to prevent him from copying the answers of others, instead of finding and composing them himself, every Tutor should institute the strictest regulations, and should be specially on his guard. This mischievous foible strikes at the root of all improvement, and is one to which young persons are equally addicted, in performing their exercises in Languages, and working their examples in Arithmetic. One means of prevention would be, to cause the scholars of each class to prepare answers in different hundreds, or fifties, or twenty-fives, as the classes consist of fives, or tens, or twenties; and, in all cases, to require that the language should vary from the text. When the Copy Books are used, the answers should be prepared on a slate, and thence transcribed fairly into the spaces left for the answers.

In large schools, it may be expedient, for these and other reasons, to interchange the books and classes, and as there are twenty-four series of Questions, this can never be difficult; thus one class may be employed on the Universal Preceptor, and its Questions; another, on the Grammar of History, and its Questions; a third, on the Grammar of Geography, and its Questions; a fourth, on the Grammar of British Geography; a fifth, on Blair’s English Grammar, and its Exercises and Questions; or, on Murray and Irving; a sixth, on the Grammar of Natural Philosophy, and, its Questions; a seventh, on the Questions of Goldsmith’s England; and an eighth, on the Questions on the New or Old Testament; and, if six months were devoted to each book, the whole course at two or three questions per morning, may be completed in four years, without interfering with other pursuits, and the lessons of various masters.

Fortunate would be that youth whose time and Tutor allowed him to complete the entire series; but in a more limited course, Blair's Universal Preceptor, or Mitchell’s Universal Catechist, ought to be the first and last, and the interval filled up by Grammar, History, Geography, and the New and Old Testament. In short, the extent and diversity of the courses may be varied to suit the judgment of the master, the taste or capacity of the scholar, the views of parents, or the proposed term of education; but it will always be proper to cause different classes to be engaged simultaneously on different books.

On the relative claims of the several works, the Editor feels it unnecessary to expatiate to the intelligent class of the community to whom these observations are addressed. Those persons are competent to decide for themselves, as soon as the several works come under their cognizance; and as they are to be found in the shops of most Booksellers, a few minutes inspection of them will necessarily supersede any partial eulogies. The prodigious sales of Goldsmith’s Geographical Works, of BLAIR'S Universal Preceptor, and of his GRAMMARS of Philosophy, and the English Language, of BARROW'S Questions on the New and Old Testament, (the only means invented of teaching the Elements of the Christian Religion, *) of ADAIR'S Questions, and of Dr. Robinson’s Grammar of History, prove that no interested commendation of those works is necessary. A regular annual demand of twenty thousand copies of some them, and of four or five thousand of others, proves that there are few Seminaries in the empire in which they are not adopted and approved.

________________________________

*Barrow’s Questions on the New and Old Testament are so essential to the due understanding of those precious volumes, that they ought to be put into the hands of all children as soon as they can write. They may be expected to find their way into every Seminary where religious instruction forms part of the system; and as they refer solely and entirely to facts, and involve no points of doctrine, they call for answers only in the words of the sacred volumes, and are therefore adapted to the use of Christians of every class and denomination. With similar views, Questions have also been prepared on Barrow’s Scripture Narratives for the use of Schools, where this excellent volume is preferred to the entire Bible. The three sets are printed in 4to. [quarto] Copy Books.

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The books on particular subjects will claim concurrent preference with the subjects themselves; but there are two books, BLAIR'S UNIVERSAL PRECEPTOR, and MITCHELL'S UNIVERSAL CATECHIST, of which it would be culpable not to speak emphatically as meriting adoption, in every course of education, in every school in the empire, from the highest to the lowest. One of these, according to the taste of the Tutor, ought to be put into the hands of every boy and girl between ten and twelve years of age; and their answers in writing to one or two of these questions, entered, every morning, in their Copy-Books, would wonderfully enlarge their KNOWLEDGE, give energy and acumen to their INTELLECTUAL POWERS, and serve as exercises at once in WRITING, SPELLING, GRAMMAR, and COMPOSITION. Other subjects may be pursued, as leisure permits; but the use of these comprehensive books should be general, while their exercises need not interfere with any other particular course of study, whether classical, commercial, or merely mechanical. Young persons may learn other subjects in detail; they may penetrate into the regions of philosophy, or walk in the delightful paths of classical literature; yet these unrivalled books of general knowledge are indispensable, as the means of facilitating, applying, and giving useful effect to those and all other studies.

Much has been written on Theories of Education: but Education is, in fact, a practical science; and there are few persons engaged in the actual teaching of children, who are enabled to do more than select the best tools, and use them with skill and zeal. The tools of Tutors are Books, and the best tools are the best elementary books. The actual improvements in education resolve themselves, therefore, into the actual improvement of books, or of the tools by which children are to be taught; and whatever may be the Speculations or Theories of ingenious and well-intentioned persons, they are utterly useless, without they are practically adapted to the actual business of a school, and converted into means for the use of the master or governess. The principles of Geometry were well known before the age of Euclid, yet all mankind have agreed in acknowledging the merit of Euclid, who first collected and arranged them into one book; by means of which Geometry could be taught to youth. In this respect, Euclid was a book-maker; yet, in spite of an employment often abused, he is deservedly considered as one of the fathers of the sciences, and receives the plaudits and gratitude of all posterity.

All parents, schoolmasters, and governesses, are competent to decide on this question, who take the trouble to compare the books now presented to their adoption with those, in general use, in their own childhood. It may consequently be taken for granted, that improved books will be recognized as the improved tools of education, and as the only practical improvement which education has recently received; and it will then constitute a desirable species of information to possess a list of those modern books, which are justly considered as possessed of such improved features as entitle them to adoption in our schools.

Classed according to their several subjects they are as follow:

Reading English. 1st Class,&endash;Pelham’s London Primer, with the accidents of children; Mavor’s Spelling-Book; Pelham’s Parent’s Catechism, with a clock-face and the accidents of children; Blair’s reading Exercises; Aikin’s Poetry for Children.&endash;2d Class,&endash;Goldsmith’s Biographical Class Book; Blair’s Class Book; Pratt’s Classical English Poetry.

Arithmetic.&endash;Joyce’s System, with its Key.

English Grammar.&endash;Blair’s English Grammar, with Exercises and Questions.

English Composition.&endash;Irving’s Elements with Adair’s Questions; Blair’s Models of Juvenile Letters.

General Science.&endash;The Universal Preceptor; Clarke’s Hundred Wonders of the World; Mitchell’s Universal Catechist; Shaw’s Nature Displayed; Watkins’s and Mitchell’s Cyclopedias.

Drawing.&endash;Hamilton’s Elements of Drawing; Chalon’s Animals; Nattes’ Rural, Scenery

Geography. Go1dsmith’s Grammar of General Geography; also his British Geography; his Geographical Copy-Books, or Blank Maps; his School Atlas, with Problems on Maps; his Popular Illustrations of Geography; Travels of Rolando; Prior’s Universal Traveller; Prior’s All the Voyages round the World.

History. Robinson’s abridgement of Hume and Smollett, with 140 Engravings; Robinson’s Grammar of History: his Ancient History; his Modem History; Adair’s Questions on Goldsmith’s England; Galt’s real Stories, drawn from our National History; Mitchell’s Historical Dictionary.

Biography. Goldsmith’s Biographical Class-Book; Mavor’s British Nepos; his Abridgement of Plutarch; Watkins’s Scripture Biography.

Natural History. Mavor’s Elements.

Natural Philosophy. Blair’s Grammar of Natural and Experimental Philosophy; Mitchell’s Universal Catechist; Mitchell’s Chemical Dictionary.

Astronomy. Squire’s Elements or Grammar; Wonders of the Heavens.

Religion. Barrow’s Questions on the Old and New Testament; his Sermons for School; Barrow’s Scripture Narratives; Randall’s Grammar of Sacred History: Watkin’s Scripture Biography; Nightingale’s account of all Religions.

Mathematics. Crocker’s Land Surveying; Nicholson’s Popular Elements of Mathematics, which includes Euclid, and the pure and mixed Mathematics, with the admirable Key; Mitchell’s Mathematical Dictionary.

Stenography. Mavor’s System.

Music. Busby’s Dictionary

French. Bossut’s First French Book of three thousand Words; his Conversations, or Phrase Book; his First Grammar; his Exercises; his Leçons Françaises, par M.M. Noel et de la Place.

Latin. Bossut’s Latin Word Book; Bossut’s Latin Phrase Book; Johnson’s Grammar of Classical Literature.

Italian. Bossut’s Italian Word Book; Bossut’s Italian Phrase Book.

English Constitution. Gifford’s Abridgement of Blackstone’s Commentaries; Goldsmith’s British Geography.

Trade and Commerce. The Book of Trades: Morrison’s Bookkeeping, and his Blank Books; Mortimer’s Dictionary.

In the practical subdivision of these studies, through the periods of youth usually allotted to education, an arrangement, something like the following, varied for different capacities, has been found to answer:-

Previous to the eighth year. The London Primer, Mavor’s Spelling-Book, Pelham’s first Catechism, Blair’s Reading Exercises, Aikin’s Poetry.

Eighth and ninth years. Barrow’s Scripture Narratives, Watkins’s Scripture Biography, Mavor’s Nepos, Blair’s Class Book, Lynch’s World displayed, Bossut’s Latin Word-Book and French Word-Book, Joyce’s Arithmetic, Blair’s English Grammar.

Tenth and eleventh years. Goldsmith’s Biographical Class Book,Robinson’s Hume and Smollett, Pratt and Mavor’s Classical Poetry, Barrow’s Questions on the Old and New Testament, Goldsmith’s Grammar of Geography and his Geographical and Astronomical Copy-Books, Bossut’s French Grammar and the Latin Grammar, Mavor’s Natural History,,Galt’s Historical Pictures, Blair’s Models of Letters.

Twelfth year. Blair’s Universal Preceptor, or Mitchell’s Universal Catechist, Bossut’s French Exercises and Latin Exercises, Robinson’s Ancient History, Mavor’s Plutarch Wonders of the World and Wonders of the Heavens, Robinson’s Grammar of History, Rundall’s Grammar of Sacred History, Goldsmith’s British Geography.

Thirteenth year. Noel’s Leçons Françaises, and the Latin Classics, Johnson’s Grammar of Classical Literature, Mitchell’s Universal Catechist, Goldsmith’s Illustrations of Geography, Robinson’s History of England, with Questions.

Fourteenth and fifteenth years. Irving’s Elements of Composition, Blair’s Grammar of ‘Natural Philosophy, Gifford’s Blackstone, Squire’s Astronomy, Nicholson’s Mathematics, The Book of Trades, Robinson’s Modern History, Prior’s All the Voyages round the World, and Universal Traveller, Morrison’s Book-keeping, Hamilton’s Elements of Drawing, Shaw’s Nature Displayed.

Other subjects and other books may be selected and preferred, but this list is sufficient to prove the power which is possessed by the modern tutor, of extending and diversifying the objects of education.

The system here indicated includes the reading of English prose and verse, English Grammar and Composition, the French and Latin Languages, Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, and their various applications, the Christian Religion, Geography, History, Ancient and Modern, Classical Literature, Natural Philosophy, Natural History, Astronomy, Knowledge of our own Country, and its Laws and Constitution, Trade and Manufactures, Book-keeping and Drawing: &endash;a compass of Juvenile Instruction never before attempted but now rendered perfectly easy and practicable, in every description of schools, by means of the books indicated; while a Tutor’s Key to each enables all instructors to introduce every one of the subjects into their academic course,&endash;an object which has been the particular ambition of the projector of this system, who has been anxious that all the subjects pointed out should be universally considered as branches of ordinary and general education.

The facility which this new System has afforded of teaching the various liberal sciences, has enabled schools of all descriptions to introduce them, as parts of every ordinary course of education; and thus the great mass of the English People are now initiated in branches of knowledge, the mere names of which were not understood, by the same description of persons, thirty years ago. In a word, by these means, the Pupil makes effective progress in knowledge; and while mental results are infinitely superior, every subject is attained in a fourth of the ordinary time, and with one-tenth of the trouble and solicitude of the Tutor. These are facts determined, by the universal experience of the first Schools in the Empire, during the last twenty years.

It is, on all hands, acknowledged, that the best hope of genuine patriotism is the complete instruction of the whole population; and that the best securities of wise, virtuous, and paternal governments, are the cultivated faculties of the people, enabling them to discriminate between law and oppression, liberty and anarchy, protection and despotism; and, from the condition of mankind in other times and countries, to draw comparisons favourable to the happy condition of their own: whilst it should never be forgotten, that a cultivated mind finds those resources in books and in intellectual pursuits, which constitute the best security of public and private morals.

 London, April, 1824.]

 

List of the Books, and their Retail Prices.

 FIRST, OR INITIATORY BOOKS.

Pelham's London Primer or Mother's First Book for Children 
at the earliest Age, adorned with 100 cuts, part of which 
represent the accidents to which children are liable, with
admonitory verses and cautions.Price ................................  0 6

Pelham's First Catechism of the Dawnings of Knowledge. 
Containing things proper to be known; with many 
engravings, and a clock face with moveable hands....................   0 9

Mavor's English Spelling Book, adapted to the capacities 
of children, and being an introductory book to the
Elements of the English Language. The 270th edition..................  1 6
 EXERCISES IN READING
Blair's Exercises for Schools on a new and popular plan. 
Being a Sequel to Mavor's Spelling Book .............................  2 0

Blair's English Class Book; or, 365 Reading Lessons,
combining the elements of all Knowledge. Bound ......................  5 0
POETRY
Poetry for Children: consisting of selections from the  best 
authors, and interspersed with original pieces.  
By Lucy Aikin. Half-bound ...........................................  2 0

Classical English Poetry: selected by Dr. Mavor  and Mr. Pratt, Bd...  5 6

The World described, in easy Verse, illustrative of  the situation,
Manners and produce of all nations in the known world. 
By W. R.Lynch .......................................................  5 0
ENGLISH LANGUAGE
A Practical Grammar of the English Language.  By the Rev. D. Blair. 
Bound................................................................  2 6

Five Hundred Questions on ditto. Copy Book size .....................  2 0

A Key to ditto for the use of Teachers ..............................  1 0

The Elements of English Composition. By D. Irving. L.L.D.  Bound ....  7 6

Five Hundred Questions on ditto and Murray's English Grammar,
Copy-book size ......................................................  2 0

A Key to ditto ................................................ .....  0 9

Models of Juvenile Letters on Familiar Subjects,  to which 
are added Topics for the Exercise of Pupils and Examples 
of French and Italian Letters. By the Rev. D. Blair. Bound  .........  4 0
GEOGRAPHY.
An easy Grammar of Geography,-with Problems on the Use of the 
Globes, &c. with maps and views. By the Rev. J. Goldsmith. 
Bound  ..............................................................  3 6

Five Hundred Questions on ditto. Copy-book size  ....................  2 0

A Key to ditto, for the use of Teachers,  ...........................  1 0

A Grammar of British Geography or State of the British Empire
throughout the World, to the present Time. With various maps 
and views. By the Rev. J. Goldsmith. Bound...........................  5 6

Five Hundred Questions on ditto. Copy-book size .....................  2 0

A Key to ditto  .....................................................  0 9

Popular Illustration of Geography, containing all the amusing
and interesting, features of Geographical knowledge. 
By the Rev. J. Goldsmith. With 60 engravings and Maps. Bound  ....... 15 0

The Universal Traveller, containing the contents of the best
modern Travels in the four quarters of the World. 
By S. Prior, Esq. Illustrated with 100 engravings. Bound  ........... 10 6

The Same,elegantly bound  ..........................................  12 0

The Travels of Rolando round the World. Compiled for the 
purpose of introducing, in a fascinating manner, authentic
descriptions of various Nations. Translated from Janffret
by Miss Aikin. 2 Vols. .............................................  10 6

The Same, elegantly calf gilt  .....................................  12 0

All the Voyages round the World; containing all the  
circumstances of every, circumnavigator round the World, 
from Magellan to Freycinet. By Capt. S. Prior.
12 mo. with 72 engravings  .........................................  10 6

The Same, elegantly bound  .........................................  12 0

The Geographical and Astronomical Copy-book. Part I. 
Consisting of outline maps of the quarters and principal
countries in the world,&c.,&c. for the purpose of being 
filled  up by junior pupils ........................................   3 6

The Same, Part II. Consisting m the same set of Maps, 
designed to be filled up by the senior classes......................   3 6

A Geographical and Astronomical Atlas, corresponding in size 
with the above Demy Copy-books, with Problems on the Globes 
and Astronomical Projections. By the Rev.J.Goldsmith.
Plain 7s coloured  ................................................    8 6

Goldsmith's large Royal-sized Geographical Copy-books.  Each Part..    5 6

The Royal-sized Atlas,agreeing with the above; 
and consisting of Geographical Maps, and Astronomical 
Projections, with numerous. Problems on Maps, and a 
Practical Dissertation on their construction .....................    12 0

The Same coloured, and neatly half bound  .......................     15 0
HISTORY
A Grammar of History, Ancient and Modern, accompanied by 
Questions and Exercises. By John Robinson, D.D. ..................     3 6

Five Hundred Questions on do. Copy-book size  ....................     2 0      

Key to Ditto  ....................................................     0 9

A Course of Ancient History; comprising the History of the 
World, from the Creation to the Death of Charlemagne. 
With many plates. By J. Robinson, D.D. ..........................      7 0

Five Hundred Questions to do. Copy-book size.....................      0 9

A Key to Ditto ..................................................      0 9

A Course of Modern History, from Charlemagne to the 
Accession of George IV. Illustrated with numerous 
Engravings and a large Map  ....................................       7 0

Five Hundred Questions on do. Copy-book size ...................       2 0 

A Key to Ditto  ..........................................             0 9

An Abridgement of Hume and Smollet's History of England 
brought down to the Reign of George the Fourth. 
By Dr. Robinson. With 100 engravings. Bound  ...................       9 0

The Same, elegantly bound in calf, and gilt  ...................      10 6

Five Hundred Questions on do. Copy-book size  ..................       2 0     

A Key to Ditto  ................................................       0 9

500 Questions on Goldsmith's England, 18 mo 1s. 
or as a Copy-book  .............................................       2 0

A Key to Ditto  ................................................       0 9

Pictures or real Stories, Historical and biographical,
drawn from English, Scottish, and Irish History. 
By John Galt, Esq. 2 Vols. Foolscap  ............................     14 0

The Same, elegantly calf gilt  ..................................     16 0

A Dictionary of Universal History and Historical Biography, 
illustrated with maps and portraits. 
By James Mitchell, L.L.D. boards ................................     10 6

The Same, calf gilt  ............................................     16 0

The Chronology of the last Fifty Years; being one of the 
most useful books of reference ever published, boards  ..........     15 0
RELIGION AND MORALS.
A Grammar of Sacred History, consisting of succinct views 
of all the facts in the Old and New Testament with 
Questions  for exercise. By Miss Rundall,illustrated by
maps and other engravings. ......................................      4 0

Five Hundred Questions on the Old Testament.  Copy-book size ....      2 0

The Same in 18 mo................................................      1 0

A Key to Ditto  .................................................      2 0

Five Hundred Questions on the New Testament  ....................      2 0

The Same in 18 mo.  .............................................      2 0

A Key to Ditto  .................................................      0 9

Scripture Narratives, consisting of all the most 
interesting historical and biographical passages in the 
Old and New Testament, illustrated with 120 engravings. 
By the Rev. S. Barrow. Bound  ...................................      7 0

Five Hundred Questions on do. Copy-book size  ...................      2 0

Key to ditto  ...................................................      0 9

Scripture Biography, consisting of the lives and c
haracters of the most remarkable personages in the Old 
and New Testament. By the Rev. J. Watkins, L.L.D. with 
Engravings. ......................................................     7 0

The Religions and Religious Ceremonies of all Nations, 
accurately and impartially described, with 100 engravings. 
By the Rev. J. Nightingale  ......................................    10 6

The Same, elegantly bound  .......................................    12 0

The Same, on fine royal paper  ...................................    15 0   

Fifty-two Sermons for Schools and Families, one for every 
Sunday in the year. By the Rev. S. Barrow. Bound  ................     7 0

A Theological, Biblical, and Ecclesiastical Dictionary, 
being a complete body of Divinity, and a general note book 
to the Bible. By the Rev. J. Robinson, D.D. Boards  ..............    28 0
ASTRONOMY.
A Grammar of the Elements of Astronomy. By T. Squire, 
with many engravings. Bound......................................      9 6

Five Hundred Questions on do. Copy-book size  ...................      2 0

Key to ditto  ...................................................      0 9

The Wonders of the Heavens, displayed in a series of 
lectures, and in numerous large engravings. By the Rev. 
C.C.Clarke .....................................................      10 6

The Same, elegantly bound  ......................................     22 0
GENERAL SCIENCE
Blair's Universal Preceptor; being a general grammar of 
arts, sciences, and useful knowledge ............................      5 0

Five Hundred Questions on ditto. Copy-book size .................      2 0

Key to ditto  ...................................................      0 9

The Hundred Wonders of the World, including wonders of 
nature and wonders of art. By the Rev. C. C. Clarke, 
with upwards of 100 engravings. .................................     10 6

The Same, elegantly bound ... ...................................     12 0

Five Hundred Questions on do. Copy-book size. ...................      2 0    

A Key to ditto. .................................................      0 9

The Universal Catechist, or Text Book of the chief 
branches of human knowledge, in questions and answers. 
By J. Mitchell, L,L,D. with 200 engravings, 12 mo. Boards........      7 0

Five Hundred Questions, do. Copy-book size.......................      2 0

Key to ditto  ...................................................      0 9
ARITHMETIC AND MATHEMATICS
The Arithmetic of Real Life and Business, adapted to the 
practical use of schools. By the Rev. J. Joyce  .................      3 0

A Key to ditto for the use of teachers ..........................      3 0

Popular Elements of pure and mixed Mathematics, 
calculated, in the course of education, to succeed to the 
study of Arithmetic, including Algebra, Euclid, &c. By
Peter Nicholson, 8vo. ...........................................     21 0

A Key to the above, by the same author, 8vo. ....................      7 6

A Dictionary of the Mathematical and Physical Sciences. 
By R. Madie, Boards. ............................................     10 6

The Same, elegantly calf gilt ...................................     12 6

The Elements of Land Surveying, in all its branches. 
By Abr. Crocker. Bound ..........................................      9 0
COMMERCE.
A General Commercial Dictionary; comprehending trade, 
manufactures, and navigation, as also Agriculture, 
so far as it is connected with commerce, with brief 
abstracts of the Laws relative to the regulation of Trade. 
By Thos. Mortimer. Boards........................................     25 0

The Book of Trades; or Library of the Useful Arts, 
in which every trade is Illustrated with an engraving and 
a full description. Bound. ......................................     10 6

The Same, elegantly calf gilt ...................................     12 0

Five Hundred Questions on the above. Copy-book size..............      2 0

Key to the Same  ................................................      0 9
BIOGRAPHY
The Biographical Class Book; or 450 Lives of the most 
Eminent Men of all Nations, from Homer to Arthur Young. 
By the Rev. J. Goldsmith, 12mo  .................................      7 0

Five Hundred Questions on ditto, Copy-book size  ................      2 0

A Key to ditto  .................................................      0 9

Public Characters of all Nations, consisting of authentic
biographical particulars of nearly 3000 living public men; 
in 3 very thick volumes, royal 18mo. with 150  engraved 
portraits  .....................................................      42 0

The British Nepos, consisting of select lives of 
illustrious Britons. By W. Mavor, L.L.D. Bound. .................      5 0

A Selection of the Lives of Plutarch. By W. Mavor, L.L.D.
Bound ...........................................................      5 6

The Universal Biographical Dictionary. By John Watkins, 
8 vo. ...........................................................     25 0
NATURAL PHILOSOPHY
An easy Grammar of Natural and Experimental Philosophy. 
By the Rev. David Blair, with numerous cuts, 18 mo. 
bound............................................................      6 6

Five Hundred Questions on the Same. Copy-book size ..............      2 0

Key to ditto ....................................................      0 9

Nature displayed in the Manifold and Wonderful Works 
of God in the Creation, consisting of 100 Lectures on
the most striking objects in the animal, vegetable and 
mineral kingdoms, and on celestial and terrestrial 
phenomena  in general. By Simeon Shaw, L.L.D. illustrated
by  300 engravings, six volumes, 12 mo. with the plates plain....     63 0

The Same, partly coloured after Nature  .........................     70 0

The Portable Cyclopedia; or Dictionary of Arts and 
Sciences. By C. T. Watkins, A.M. ................................     25 0
CLASSICAL LITERATURE
A Grammar of Classical Literature, or Key to the Study 
of the Latin and Greek Authors. By B. Johnson, 18 mo. ............    8 0

Five Hundred Questions on ditto. Copy-book size..................     2 0

Key to ditto ....................................................     0 9
MUSIC.
A Complete Dictionary of Music, explaining all the  terms 
used in the theory and practice of that science. 
By Thos. Busby, MD. Boards .....................................     7 6
BOOK-KEEPING.
The Elements of Book-keeping by Single and Double Entry.  
By James Morrison, 8 vo. half-bound ...........................      7 6

Blank sets of Books to fill up, 2S. 6d. to ....................      5 0
SHORT HAND
Universal Stenography, or a Complete and Practical 
System of Short Hand. By W. Mavor ............................       6 0
MEDICINE, &c.
A Grammar of Medicine, being an introduction to the 
study of that science, with questions. Bound ................        6 0

A Universal Family Receipt Book, being upwards of 
5000 Receipts for domestic practice on every subject. 
By Colin Mackenzie. Bound. ...................................      10 6
CHEMISTRY.
One Thousand Experiments in Chemistry and Processes in 
Manufactures. By Colin Mackenzie. ...........................       £1 0

A Dictionary of Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Geology. 
By J. Mitchell, L.L.D. FAS. .................................       10 6

The Same, calf gilt .........................................       12 6
ART OF DRAWING
The Elements of Drawing, or the Art of Drawing 
without a Master; consisting of 60 plain and 
coloured  Engravings. By G. Hamilton. ........................      27 0

One Hundred and Twenty Examples of Rural Scenery, 
to facilitate thepractice of drawing Landscapes 
from Nature. By J. C. Nattes,  Esq. ..........................      12 0

One Hundred and Sixty Examples of Animals of every 
Species. By H. B. Chalon, Esq. ...............................       0 6
NATURAL HISTORY.
The Elements of Natural History, with 50 plates 
representing two hundred of the most curious objects. 
By W. Mavor, L.L.D. Bound ....................................       7 6
ENGLISH CONSTITUTION
The Young Briton's Catechism of Social Rights and 
Duties.  By the Rev. S. Barrow ..............................       0 6

Blackstone's Commentaries on the Laws and Constitution 
of England, abridged. By J. Gifford, Esq. To which 
are added, the Constitutions of the Romans and Spartans. 
Bound .......................................................      15 0

Five Hundred Questions on do. Copy-book size. ...............       2 0

A Key, to ditto. ............................................       0 9
FOREIGN LANGUAGES
The French Word Book; or First Step to the 
French Language. By M. L'Abbé Bossut........................        1 0

The French Phrase Book; or Key to French Conversation. 
By the Same Author. Sewed ..................................        1 0

The First French and English Grammar French and 
English Exercises. By the Same .............................        2 6

500 Questions on the Grammar and Exercises. 
Copy-book size, 4to .......................................         2 0

Key to ditto ..............................................         1 0

Leçons Françaises de Litterature et de Moral. 
Par M. Noel, et M. de la Place. 12mo. Bound ...............         7 0

L'Enfant Prodigue, Conte Morale, with Idioms ..............         3 0

The Italian Word Book. By the Same. .......................         1 0

The Italian Phrase Book. By the Same ......................         1 0

The Latin Word Book. By the Same ..........................         1 0

The Latin Phrase Book. By the Same ........................         1 0

500 Questions on the Eton Latin Grammar, 4to. .............         2 0

Key to ditto ..............................................         0 9
SCHOOLMASTER'S ASSISTANT BOOKS
The Schoolmaster's Register of the Good and Bad 
Conduct of his several Pupils for half a Year; 
applicable to Study, Moral Conduct, and Behaviour. 
By the Rev. David Blair ...................................        1 0

The Governess's Register; on the same plan as 
the preceding. By the same Author .........................        1 0

The Tutor's Key, complete, containing references 
to the Questions in twenty-four several Works.
Bound .....................................................        5 6
_______________________________________
Printed for G. and W. B. WHITTAKER, Ave Maria Lane, and to be had Wholesale and Retail of all Booksellers and Stationers. _____________________________________ D. Sidney and Co., Printers, Northumerland St., Strand


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