Critical Thinking Publications of Robert H. Ennis


Ennis, R. H.  (1996) Critical thinking.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Norris, S. P. and Ennis, R. H.  (1989).  Evaluating critical thinking.  Pacific Grove, CA:  Midwest Publications.

Ennis, R. H.  (1969).  Logic in teaching.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall.

Ennis, R. H.  (1969).  Ordinary logic.  Englewood Cliffs, NJ:  Prentice-Hall.


Accepted for Publication:

‘Probably’ (in press). In David Hitchcock and Bart Verheij (Eds.), Arguing on the Toulmin model. Amsterdam: Springer. Pp. 129-146.

Investigating and assessing multiple-choice critical thinking tests. (in press). Jan Sobocan and Leo Groarke (Eds.), Critical Thinking, Education and Assessment. London, Ontario: Althouse Press.

‘Probable’ and ‘Probability’. To appear in Robert Pinto and Hans Hansen (Eds.), Festschrift for J. Anthony Blair and Ralph Johnson.


Published Articles:

Ennis, R. H. (2004). Applying soundness standards to qualified reasoning. Informal Logic, 24, 1, 23-39.

Ennis, R. H. (2003).Critical thinking assessment. In Fasko, Dan (Ed.), Critical thinking and reasoning: Current theories, research, and practice. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.

Ennis, R. H. (2002). Goals for a critical thinking curriculum and its assessment. In Arthur L. Costa (Ed.), Developing minds (3rd Edition). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Pp. 44-46.

Ennis, R. H. (2001). Argument appraisal strategy: A comprehensive approach. Informal Logic, 21.2 (2), 97-140.

Ennis, R. H. (1998).  Is critical thinking culturally biased? Teaching Philosophy, 21, 1 (March), 15-33.

Ennis, R. H. (1997).  Incorporating critical thinking in the curriculum: An introduction to some basic issues.  Inquiry, 16 (3), 1-9.

Ennis, R. H. (1996). Critical thinking dispositions: Their nature and assessability. Informal Logic, 18, 2 & 3, 165-182 .

Wheary, J. and Ennis, R. H. (1995).  Gender bias in critical thinking: continuing the dialogue.  Educational Theory, 45 (2), 213-224.

Ennis, R. H. (1993).  Critical thinking assessment.  Theory into Practice, 32 (3), 179-186.

Ennis, R. H. (1993).  Critical thinking: What is it?  In Henry A. Alexander (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1992.  Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society.  Pp. 76-80.

Ennis, R. H. (1992).  John McPeck's Teaching critical thinking. Educational Studies, 23 (4), 462-472.

Ennis, R. H. (1992).  Conflicting views on teaching critical reasoning.  In Richard A. Talaska (Ed.), Critical reasoning in contemporary culture.  Albany: State :University of New York Press.  Pp. 5-27.  (Note:  This item is a revised version of the 1989 paper, Critical thinking and subject specificity: Clarification and needed research.)

Ennis, R. H. (1992).  Assessing higher order thinking for accountability.  In J. W. Keefe & H. J. Walberg (Eds.), Teaching for Thinking.  Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.  Pp. 73-91.

Ennis, R.H. (1992).  The degree to which critical thinking is subject specific: Clarification and needed research.  In S.P. Norris (Ed.), The generalizability of critical thinking: Multiple perspectives on an educational ideal.  New York: Teachers College Press.  Pp. 21-37.  (Note:  This is a revised version of the 1989 paper, Critical thinking and subject specificity: Clarification and needed research.)

Ennis, R.H. (1991).  Critical thinking: A streamlined conception. Teaching Philosophy, 14 (1), 5-25.

Ennis, R.H. (1991).  The State of Illinois goals and sample learning objectives for scientific thinking and methods: Strengths, weaknesses and suggestions.  Spectrum, 17 (1), 10-16.

Ennis, R.H. (1991). An elaboration of a cardinal goal of science instruction: Scientific thinking.  Educational Philosophy and Theory, 23 (1), 31-45.

Ennis, R.H. (1991). Critical thinking tests.  In A. Costa (Ed.), Developing minds.  Washington, DC: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.  Pp. 368-369.

Kennedy, M, Fisher, M.B. & Ennis, R.H.  (1991).  Critical thinking: Literature review and needed research.  In L. Idol and B.F. Jones (Eds.), Educational values and cognitive instruction: Implications for reform.  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.  Pp. 11-40.

Ennis, R.H. (1990).  The extent to which critical thinking is subject specific: further clarification, Educational Researcher, 19 (4), 13-16.

Ennis, R.H. & Norris, S.P. (1990). Critical thinking assessment: Status, issues, needs."  In Sue M. Legg and James Algina (Eds.), Cognitive assessment of language and math outcomes.  Norwood, NJ: Ablex.  Pp. 1-42.

Ennis, R.H.  (1990).  The rationality of rationality: Why think critically?  In Ralph Page (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1989.  Bloomington, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 1990. Pp. 402-405.

Ennis, R.H.  (1989).  Critical thinking and subject specificity:  Clarification and needed research.  Educational Researcher, 18  (3),  4-10.

Ennis, R.H.  (1987).  A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities.  In J. Baron & R. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills:  Theory and practice.  New York:  W.H. Freeman.  Pp. 9-26.

Fischer, J. M. and Ennis, R. H. (1986).  Causation and liability. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 15 (1), 33-40.

Ennis, R.H.  (1985).  A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills.  Educational Leadership, 43 (2), 44-48.

Ennis, R.H.  (1985).  Critical thinking and the curriculum. National Forum, 65, 28-31.

Ennis, R.H.  (1985).  Quality and creativity.  In E. Robertson (Ed.), Philosophy of education, 1984 (pp. 323-328).  Bloomington, IL:  Philosophy of Education Society.

Sutton, R. & Ennis, R. H. (1985).  Logical operations in the classroom.  In Husen, T. and Postlethwaite, T. N. (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education: Research and studies.  Oxford: Pergamon Press. Pp. 3129-3139.

Ennis, R.H.  (1984).  Problems in testing informal logic, critical thinking, reasoning ability.  Informal Logic , 6, 3-9.

Ennis, R.H. (1982).  Identifying implicit assumptions.  Synthese, 51, 61-86.

Ennis, R.H.  (1982).  A third paradigm:  The what-would-count-as-evidence approach.  In S. Modgil & C. Modgil (Eds.), Jean Piaget:  Consensus and controversy.  London:  Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.  Pp. 154-156.

Ennis, R.H.  (1982).  Abandon causality?  Educational Researcher, 11 (7), 25-27.

Ennis, R. H. (1982). Mackie's singular causality and linked overdetermination.  In Asquith, Peter D. & Nickles, Thomas (Eds.), PSA 1982.  East Lansing MI: Philosophy of Science Association.  Pp. 55-64.

Ennis, R.H. (1981).  A conception of deductive logic competence. Teaching Philosophy, 4, 337-385.

Ennis, R. H.  (1980).  Presidential address: A conception of rational thinking.  In Jerrold Coombs (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1979.  Bloomington, IL: Philosophy of Education Society.  Pp. 1-30.

Tomko, T.N. and Ennis, R.H.  (1980).  Evaluation of informal logic competence.  In J. A. Blair & R. Johnson (Eds.), Informal logic:  The first international symposium.  Inverness, CA:  Edgepress.  Pp. 113-144.

Ennis, R.H.  (1979).  Research in philosophy of science and science education.  In P. Asquith & H. Kyburg (Eds.), Current research in philosophy of science.  East Lansing, MI:  Philosophy of Science Association.  Pp. 138-170.

Ennis, R.H.  (1978).  Description, explanation, and circularity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1, 184-185.

Ennis, R.H.  (1976).  An alternative to Piaget's conceptualization of logical competence.  Child Development, 47, 903-919.

Ennis, R.H. (1975).  Children's ability to handle Piaget's propositional logic:  A conceptual critique.  Review of Educational Research, 45, 1-41.

Ennis, R.H. (1974).  The believability of people.  Educational Forum, 38, 347-354.

Ennis, R.H.  (1974).  Definition in science teaching. Instructional Science, 3, 285-298.

Ennis, R.H.  (1973).  On causality.  Educational Researcher, 2 (6), 4-11.

Ennis, R.H. (1971).  Conditional logic and primary school children: A developmental study.  Interchange, 2, 126-132.

Ennis, R.H.  (1968).  Enumerative induction and best explanation. The Journal of Philosophy, 65,  523-530.

Ennis, R.H.  (1967).  Readiness to master a principle.  In B.P. Komisar & C.J.B. Macmillan (Eds.), Psychological concepts in education.  Chicago:  Rand McNally and Company.  Pp. 51-59.

Ennis, R.H.  (1964).  Operational definitions.  American Educational Research Journal, 1, 183-201.  (Reprinted in L.I. Krimerman (Ed.), (1969), The nature and scope of social science:  A critical anthology. New York:  Appleton-Century-Crofts.  Pp. 431-444.  (Title as reprinted:  Operationism can and should be divorced from covering law assumptions.)

Ennis, R.H.  (1963).  Needed:  Research in critical thinking. Educational Leadership, 21 (1), 17-20, 39.

Ennis, R.H.  (1962).  A concept of critical thinking. Harvard Educational Review, 32, 81-111.

Ennis, R.H.  (1961).  Assumption-finding.  In B.O. Smith & R.H. Ennis (Eds.), Language and concepts in education.  Chicago:  Rand McNally and Company . Pp. 161-178.

Ennis, R.H.  (1958).  An appraisal of the Watson-Glaser critical thinking appraisal.  Journal of Educational Research, 52, 155-158.

Ennis, R. H.  (1956).  Critical thinking: More on its motivation. Progressive Education, May, 1956, 75-78.


Ennis, R.H. and Millman, J.  (1985).  Cornell critical thinking test, level X.  Pacific Grove, CA:  Midwest Publications.

Ennis, R.H. and Millman, J.  (1985).  Cornell critical thinking test, level Z.  Pacific Grove, CA:  Midwest Publications.

Ennis, R.H. and Weir, E.  (1985).  The Ennis-Weir critical thinking essay test.  Pacific Grove, CA:  Midwest Publications.

 In Process:

Situational Test Validity

Cornell critical thinking test, Level WJX (written justification version).

Essays in Critical Thinking.

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