Critical Thinking Definition and Conceptualization

Definition: Critical thinking is reasonable reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do.



Ennis, R. H. (2002). Goals for a critical thinking curriculum and its assessment. In Arthur L. Costa (Ed.), Developing minds (3rd Edition). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Pp. 44-46.

Ennis, R. H.  (1996) Critical thinking.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Ennis, R. H. (1993).  Critical thinking: What is it?  In Henry A. Alexander (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1992.  Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society.  Pp. 76-80.

Ennis, R. H. (1992).  John McPeck's Teaching critical thinking.  Educational Studies, 23 (4), 462-472.

Ennis, R.H. (1991).  Critical thinking: A streamlined conceptionTeaching Philosophy, 14 (1), 5-25.

Ennis, R.H. (1991). An elaboration of a cardinal goal of science instruction: Scientific thinking.  Educational Philosophy and Theory, 23 (1), 31-45.

Ennis, R.H.  (1990).  The rationality of rationality: Why think critically?  In Ralph Page (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1989.  Bloomington, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 1990. Pp. 402-405.

Ennis, R.H.  (1987).  A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities.  In J. Baron & R. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills:  Theory and practice.  New York:  W.H. Freeman.  Pp. 9-26.

Ennis, R.H.  (1981).  Eight fallacies in Bloom's taxonomy.  In C.J.B. Macmillan (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1980. Bloomington, IL:  Philosophy of Education Society.  Pp. 269-273.

Ennis, R. H.  (1980).  Presidential address: A conception of rational thinking.  In Jerrold Coombs (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1979.  Bloomington, IL: Philosophy of Education Society.  Pp. 1-30.

Ennis, R.H.  (1979).  Research in philosophy of science and science education.  In P. Asquith & H. Kyburg (Eds.), Current research in philosophy of science.  East Lansing, MI:  Philosophy of Science Association.  Pp. 138-170.

Ennis, R.H.  (1962).  A concept of critical thinking.  Harvard Educational Review, 32, 81-111.

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