Definition: Critical thinking is reasonable reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do.
See A Super-Streamlined Conception of Critical Thinking for a very brief outline of my most recent unexemplified version of a conception of critical thinking.
See A Streamlined Conception of Critical Thinking for a more detailed conception with examples.
See The Nature of Critical Thinking: An Outline of Critical Thinking Dispositions and Abilities for some elaboration of the above items (including some criteria, but still no examples).
See my Critical Thinking (Prentice Hall, 1996) for a more thorough presentation of criteria with many examples. Comments and suggestions are welcome.
For detailed attention to selected aspects of critical thinking, see: assumption ascription or identification, logical competence, best-explanation reasoning, definition strategy and tactics, credibility of sources, and critical thinking dispositions.
Ennis, R. H. (2002). Goals for a critical thinking curriculum and its assessment. In Arthur L. Costa (Ed.), Developing minds (3rd Edition). Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Pp. 44-46.
Ennis, R. H. (1996) Critical thinking. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Ennis, R. H. (1993). Critical thinking: What is it? In Henry A. Alexander (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1992. Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society. Pp. 76-80.
Ennis, R. H. (1992). John McPeck's Teaching critical thinking. Educational Studies, 23 (4), 462-472.
Ennis, R.H. (1991). Critical thinking: A streamlined conception. Teaching Philosophy, 14 (1), 5-25.
Ennis, R.H. (1991). An elaboration of a cardinal goal of science instruction: Scientific thinking. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 23 (1), 31-45.
Ennis, R.H. (1990). The rationality of rationality: Why think critically? In Ralph Page (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1989. Bloomington, IL: Philosophy of Education Society, 1990. Pp. 402-405.
Ennis, R.H. (1987). A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In J. Baron & R. Sternberg (Eds.), Teaching thinking skills: Theory and practice. New York: W.H. Freeman. Pp. 9-26.
Ennis, R.H. (1981). Eight fallacies in Bloom's taxonomy. In C.J.B. Macmillan (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1980. Bloomington, IL: Philosophy of Education Society. Pp. 269-273.
Ennis, R. H. (1980). Presidential address: A conception of rational thinking. In Jerrold Coombs (Ed.), Philosophy of education 1979. Bloomington, IL: Philosophy of Education Society. Pp. 1-30.
Ennis, R.H. (1979). Research in philosophy of science and science education. In P. Asquith & H. Kyburg (Eds.), Current research in philosophy of science. East Lansing, MI: Philosophy of Science Association. Pp. 138-170.
Ennis, R.H. (1962). A concept of critical thinking. Harvard Educational Review, 32, 81-111.
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