Robert H. Ennis' Academic Web Site

This site was last edited September 6, 2011. Please send questions and suggestions to

My academic interests lie primarily in the areas, critical thinking, philosophy of science, (especially causality), and analysis of educational concepts. Click on any underlined item of interest to you for references, expansion, and unpublished thoughts. A number of references appear under more than one heading:

1.  Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking Definition: Critical thinking is reasonable reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do.


Critical Thinking Assessment: How do we assess critical thinking?


Critical Thinking Teaching/Curriculum: How should we teach critical thinking and incorporate it in a curriculum?

2.  Philosophy of Science
Includes concerns with causality and best-explanation inference; philosophy of educational research, including test reliability and validity; and science education.

3.  Analysis of Educational Concepts
Includes concerns with assumptions, bias, causality, equality of educational opportunity, neutrality, and readiness.

A comprehensive record of my academic activities and publications (c.v.) is available.






Postal: 3904 Trentwood Place, Sarasota, FL 34243 USA

Phone: (941) 358-0906


Also: Educational Policy Studies, College of Education, 1310 S. 6th St., Champaign, IL 61820, USA; phone: (217) 333-2446.