The Things We Do

Using the Lessons of Bernard and Darwin

to Understand the What, How, and Why of Our Behavior

Gary Cziko

©2000 MIT Press & Gary Cziko

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1. Introduction and Overview

I. Theories of Behavior: From Psychic and Purposeful to Materialist and Purposeless

2. Philosophical Perspectives on Behavior: From Animism to Materialism

3. Psychological Perspectives on Behavior: From Purposeful to Purposeless

II. Purpose Without Spirit: From Constancy of the Internal Environment to Perceptual Control of the External Environment

4. A Biological Perspective on Purpose: The Physiology of Bernard and Cannon

5. The Engineering of Purpose: From Water Clocks to Cybernetics

6. A Psychological Perspective on Purpose: Organisms as Perceptual Control Systems

III. Behavior and Evolution: Then and Now

7. The Evolution of Animal Behavior: The Impact of the Darwinian Revolution

8. The Evolution of Human Behavior: The Darwinian Revolution Continued

9. Evolution Within the Body: The Darwinian Lesson Extended

IV. Bernard and Darwin Meet Behavioral Science: Implications and Applications

10. Understanding Adaptive Behavior and Thought as Purposeful Evolution: Combining Bernard and Darwin

11. Behavioral Science and the Cause-Effect Trap

12. Applying the Lessons of Bernard and Darwin to Behavioral Theory, Research, and Practice